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Finally, it includes numbers from Europe, the Caribbean, Central and South America, and Mexico for comparison. Before we discuss the socioeconomic and cultural characteristics and impacts of Asian immigrants, let us examine how they've formed their own ethnic communities after arriving in the U. As I described earlier, the first Asian American enclave (I use "enclave" and "community" interchangeably) were not Chinatowns but were actually Manila Villages in Louisiana in the 1750s.
As you can see, the Asian ethnic group that has sent the most immigrants to the U. since 1971 are the Philippines (over 1.5 million since 1971), followed by India, Korea, and Viet Nam (all around 3/4 of a million). But the Chinatowns that developed as increasing numbers of Chinese workers came to northern California and Hawai'i in the mid-1800s expanded the scale of such enclaves to a whole new level.
On the other hand, other scholars argue that while immigrant workers in ethnic enclaves may be slightly 'penalized' in terms of wages and working conditions, they benefit in other ways.
Specifically, they enjoy the pyschological familiarity and comfort of being surrounded by others like them as they adapt to a strange new society.
They also learn the ins and outs of running a small business and in fact, many workers eventually go on to opening up their own small businesses, sometimes by buying the business from their former owners.
In short, while there are some disadvantages for workers in the ethnic enclave, the fact remains that Asian ethnic communities have the enormous potential to benefit everyone involved -- new immigrants, established Asian Americans, the local non-Asian community, and American society as a whole.
They illustrate different racial/ethnic distributions and concentrations in cities within Los Angeles County for 1980, 1990, and 2000.In fact, many Asian American non-profit community organizations beame established to protest against these exploitative conditions by picketing Asian small businesses and pressuring their owners to improve working conditions and wages, and by trying to unionize these immigrant workers.Academic research also shows that working within an ethnic enclave is frequently beneficial for Asian business owners but not for their workers who may be able to earn more and enjoy slightly better working conditions in jobs outside the ethnic enclave.However, these numbers pale in comparison to the number of immigrants from Mexico, who total over 4.5 million since 1971 -- wow! As the Chinese population spread to other parts of the country, new Chinatowns spread to other major cities, such as New York City, Los Angeles, and Chicago.But after Chinese immigration was all but stopped in the 1880s, the Japanese then followed in the steps of the Chinese and "Little Tokyos" began cropping up, first in Hawai'i, San Francisco and then in Los Angeles.
Some may even be in place where you would never expect, such as a thriving Hmong community in Minneapolis/St. There are also expanding Asian communities in many Canadian cities, in particular Toronto and Vancouver.